BLACK HOLES: Weirdest but most amazing creations of the universe
Have you ever wondered what are Black Holes? How are they formed ? How big are they? What is inside a black hole? What will happen if you fell inside a Black hole? You probably did. Black holes are the weirdest but most amazing creations of the Universe. You have heard about Black holes a lot of time that they are a giant balls of extremely powerful gravitational field. Not even light can pass through it. Today I m going to clear everything about black holes from the beginning.
WHAT IS A BLACK HOLE?
Black holes are the regions in outer space which possess extremely powerful gravitational field .This gravitational field is so powerful that no particles or even electromagnetgic radiation (light) can escape from it. The boundary of a region through which nothing can pass is known as Event horizon. Black hole act like an ideal black body as it reflects no light. The temperature is on the order of billions which make it almost impossible to obse
HISTORY OF BLACK HOLES
The study of universe and its creations is a pretty old subject. From the beginning humans were always interested in knowing what was near them and what was far away from them as well. Objects whose gravitational fields are too strong for even light to escape were first considered in the 18th century by John Michell and Pierre -Simon Laplace.
Albert Einstein’s General theory of relativity played a huge role in the discovery of black holes. In 1916 , Karl Schwarzschild found the modern solution of General theory of relativity , which characterized the region of space with powerful gravitational field. However , its interpretation as a region of space from which not even light can escape was done by David Finkelstein in 1958. For a long time, the existence of black holes were considered only theoretical. It was only in 1960s that the existence of black holes were proved.
HOW BLACK HOLES ARE FORMED?
Usually black holes are formed by the death of stars which have mass about 20 times greater than the Sun.
In the normal life of a star there is a constant tug of war between gravitational from outside and nuclear force from inside. Gravitational force pushes the surface of the stars whereas the nuclear forces inside the core of the star pulls it outwards resulting in the overall stability of a star.
In smaller stars , when they run out of their nuclear fuel, gravity gets the benefit and starts compressing its core. However at one point the repulsive forces of electrons in stars becomes so strong that it stops any more compression. These types of stars are known as White Dwarfs and they die peacefully after that.
In massive stars the case is a bit different. When they run out of fuel they explode as a Supernova. The outer parts of the stars are expelled violently into space whereas the core collapses under its own weight. If the core of the star is so massive, then there is no repulsive force to fight with gravitational force and the core completely collapses forming a black hole.
When the core is compressing , it reaches a theoretical point where it has virtually zero volume and infinite density. This is known as Singularity.
SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE
Our Universe is full of mysteries and we have just started to explore it. There are infinite number of black holes present in the universe. Black holes are present in different sizes out there. Some are as big as billion times to our Sun and some are very small. Recently, scientist have found the supermassive black hole ever known to us. It is present in a small galaxy which is 250 million light years away from us. The supermassive black hole has a mass equivalent to 17 billion suns and is located inside the galaxy NGC 1277 in the constellation Perseus. This black hole make upto 14% of the total mass of the galaxy. Scientists says “it is really a different galaxy because it is nearly all a black hole”. The giant black hole is about 11 times as wide as the orbit of Neptune around our sun, researchers said.
WHAT IS INSIDE A BLACK HOLE?
From the studies and theories conducted on the black holes we basically know what is outside a black hole. The simple answer to the above question is that we don’t know. After we go beyond the Event horizon, there is no point of return. Once you go there, you are done! Event horizon is the place where laws of Physics go crazy or break down. According to a theory there is something called Singularity inside the black hole. A singularity is what all the matter in a black hole gets crushed into.
WHAT IF YOU FELL IN A BLACK HOLE?
Again the simple answer is we don’t know? Most probably you will die because of the extreme gravitational force. But who knows you might reach the end of the black hole or a new universe! (sounds crazy, isn’t it?)
If it were a stellar-mass black hole, you’d be dead before you passed the event horizon. That’s because, if you think of a black hole as a pit, a stellar-mass black hole has steeper sides than a supermassive black hole. The tidal forces become too strong too fast for you to survive to the event horizon, resulting in your spaghettification (elongation of the body). But lets suppose you passed the Event horizon , then you will see some flashing lights. When you go more closer to the singularity, gravity will stretch and squeeze you like a towel. At this point you will die!
Still there is so much to discover in the outer space and we have not much time (I guess). Black holes are the amazing creations of our universe. Do you think will we ever be able to solve all the mysteries of our universe? Please let me know in the comment section.